Active Constituents – Plants Make You Feel Better

The medicinal effects of certain plants are well known. German chamomile, for instance, has been taken to alleviate stomach related issues for a great many years, and aloe Vera was referred to Cleopatra as a healing skin remedy.

It is only relatively recently, however, that active constituents responsible for the medicinal actions of plants have been isolated and observed. Knowing a little about the chemicals contained in plants helps you to understand how they work within the body.

Do Plants Make You Feel Better


The Phenols are a very varied group of plant constituents ranging from salicylic acid, a molecule similar to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), to complex sugar containing phenolic glycosides. Phenols are often anti inflammatory and antiseptic, and are thought to be produced by plants to protect against infection and feeding by insects.


Phenolic acids, such as rosmarinic acid, are strongly antioxidant and antiinflammatory, and can also have antiviral properties. Wintergreen and white willow both contain salicylates. Many mint family members contain phenols—for example, the strongly antiseptic thymol, found in thyme (Thymus vulgaris).


Like vegetable foods, many medicinal plants provide high levels of minerals. Plants, especially organically grown ones, draw minerals from the soil and convert them into a form that is more easily absorbed and used by the body.


Whether plants are eaten as a vegetable, like cabbage, or taken as a medicine, like bladderwrack, in many cases the mineral content is a key factor in the plant’s therapeutic activity within the body. Dandelion leaf is a potent diuretic, balanced by its high potassium content, while the high silica content of horsetail supports the repair of connective tissue, making it useful in arthritis.[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Bitters are a varied group of constituents linked only by their pronounced bitter taste. The bitterness itself stimulates secretions by the salivary glands and digestive organs. Such secretions can dramatically improve the appetite and strengthen the overall function of the digestive system.



With the improved digestion and absorption of nutrients that follow, the body is nourished and strengthened. Many herbs have bitter constituents, notably wormwood, chiretta and hops[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Volatile Oils

Volatile oils which are extracted from plants to produce essential oils are some of the most important medicinally active plant constituents, and are also used widely in perfumery. They are complex mixtures often of 100 or more compounds, mostly made up of monoterpenes molecules containing 10 carbon atoms. Essential oils have many uses.



Tea tree oil is strongly antiseptic, while sweet gale oil is an effective insect repellent. On distillation, some essential oils contain compounds not found in the volatile oil chamazulene, found in German chamomile essential oil, is anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic. Resins—sticky oily substances that seep from plants, for example from the bark of Scots pines are often linked with essential oils (oleoresins) and gums (see Polysaccharides), though they are nonvolatile.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Found only in types of the mustard and cabbage family, glucosilinates have an aggravation impact on the skin, causing irritation and rankling. Applied as poultices to painful or aching joints, they increase blood flow to the affected area, helping to remove the buildup of waste products (a contributory factor in many joint problems).



On eating, glucosilinates are separated and produce a solid, impactful taste. Radish and watercress are typical glucosilinate containing plants.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Tannins are delivered to a more prominent or lesser degree by all plants. The harsh, astringent taste of tannin-laden bark and leaves makes them unpalatable to insects and grazing animals. Tannins are polyphenolic intensifies that agreement and astringe tissues of the body by official with and encouraging proteins henceforth their utilization to “tan” calfskin.

They also help to stop bleeding and to check infection. Tannin-containing herbs are used to tighten up over-relaxed tissues as in varicose veins to dry up excessive watery secretions as in diarrhea and to protect damaged tissue such as skin problems resulting from eczema or a burn. Oak bark and black catechu are both high in tannins.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


In spite of the fact that regularly disregarded, numerous restorative plants contain helpful degrees of vitamins. Some are well known for their vitamin content, for example dog rose has high levels of vitamin C, and carrot is rich in betacarotene (pro-vitamin A), but many are less well recognized.

Dog Rose

Dog Rose

Watercress, for example, contains appreciable levels of vitamins B 1, B2, C, and E as well as beta-carotene, while sea buckthorn can be regarded as a vitamin and mineral supplement in its own right.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Closely related to tannins and flavonoids, these polyphenolic compounds are pigments that give flowers and fruits a blue, purple, or red hue. They are powerfully antioxidant and free-radical scavengers. They protect the circulation from damage, particularly the circulation in the heart, hands, feet, and eyes. Blackberry, red grapes, and hawthorn all contain appreciable quantities of these proanthocyanidins.

Alkaloids – A very mixed group, alkaloids mostly contain a nitrogen-bearing molecule (-NH2) that makes them particularly pharmacologically active. Some are notable medications and have a perceived therapeutic use.


Slippery Elm

Slippery Elm

Vincristine, for example, derived from Madagascar periwinkle, is used to treat some types of cancer. Other alkaloids, such as atropine, found in deadly nightshade have a direct effect on the body, reducing spasms, relieving pain, and drying up bodily secretions.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Coumarins of various types are found in many plant species and have broadly different activities.



The coumarins in melilot and horse chestnut help to keep the blood thin, while furanocoumarins such as bergapten, found in celery, stimulate skin tanning, and khellin, found in visnaga, is a powerful smooth-muscle relaxant.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Found in all plants, polysaccharides are multiple units of sugar molecules linked together. From an herbal point of view, the most important polysaccharides are the “sticky” mucilages and gums, which are commonly found in roots, bark, leaves, and seeds. Both mucilage and gum soak up large quantities of water, producing a sticky, jelly-like mass that can be used to soothe and protect irritated tissue, for example, dry irritated skin and sore or inflamed mucous membranes in the gut.



Mucilaginous herbs, such as slippery elm and linseed or flaxseed, are best prepared by soaking in plenty of cold water. Some polysaccharides stimulate the immune system, for example acemannan, which is found in the leaves of aloe vera.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


The main active constituents in many key medicinal plants, saponins gained their name because, like soap, they make a lather when placed in water. Saponins occur in two different forms steroidal and triterpenoid. The chemical structure of steroidal saponins is similar to that of many of the body’s hormones, for example estrogen and cortisol, and many plants containing them have a marked hormonal activity.



Wild yam from which the contraceptive pill was first developed, contains steroidal saponins. Triterpenoid saponins occur more commonly for example in licorice and cowslip root but have less hormonal activity. They are often expectorant and aid absorption of nutrients[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Anthraquinones are the main active constituents in herbs such as senna and Chinese rhubarb, both of which are taken to relieve constipation.

Chinese Rhubarb

Chinese Rhubarb

Anthraquinones have an aggravation laxative impact on the digestive organ, causing withdrawals of the intestinal dividers and invigorating defecation roughly 10 hours subsequent to being taken. They also make the stool more liquid, easing bowel movements.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Cardiac Glycosides

Found in various medicinal plants, notably in foxgloves and in lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis, p. 194), cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, and convallotoxin have a strong, direct action on the heart, supporting its strength and rate of contraction when it is failing.



Cardiac glycosides are also significantly diuretic. They help to stimulate urine production, thus increasing the removal of fluid from the tissues and circulatory system.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Cyanogenic glycosides

Though these glycosides are based on cyanide, a very potent poison, in small doses they have a helpful sedative and relaxant effect on the heart and muscles.



The bark of wild cherry and the leaves of elder both contain cyanogenic glycosides, which contribute to the plant’s ability to suppress and soothe irritant dry coughs. Many fruit kernels contain significant levels of cyanogenic glycosides, for instance those of apricot.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Found widely throughout the plant world, flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as pigments, imparting color, often yellow or white, to flowers and fruits. They have a wide range of actions and many medicinal uses.



They are antioxidant and especially useful in maintaining healthy circulation. Some flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and liver-protective activity. Flavonoids such as hesperidin and rutin, found in many plants, notably buckwheat and lemon, strengthen capillaries and prevent leakage into surrounding tissues. Isoflavones, found for example in red clover are estrogenic and valuable in treating menopausal symptoms

Source – Andrew Chevallier (Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine)[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Back Diseases

Discitis : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Home Treatment

What is Discitis Disease?

A human spine is develop of numerous vertebrae that stack on each other. Discitis is a disease, as the “itis” would indicate, of infection of the discs between the vertebras of the spine. Viral or bacterial infections can cause discitis.

Discitis also known as Diskitis / (Spinal Infection word umervo) Spinal Inflammation

Diskitis is an irritation of the vertebral circle space frequently identified with infection. When they occur, they can be devastating. It is not a common spinal disease. Your spine’s encompassing tissues, joints, and vertebrae can likewise wind up disturbed and aroused. Discitis is a bacterial infection, however it might be viral. Discitis can happen in the neck, however it is progressively regular in the low back.

They are often the causes of debilitating neurologic injury.  Swelling in these spaces can put weight on the circles, prompting torment.

diskitis and associated vertebral osteomyelitis are uncommon conditions, if infection of the disc occurs, it is very difficult to treat, and this is why discitis is such a big problem to those who contract it.

Which Age Group Affect Discitis Disease?

Discitis is an infection in the intervertebral plate space that influences distinctive age gatherings. Diskitis disease can occur in both adults and children, but discitis is more common in children.

Baby boy and girl, Teen Boy and Girl, Man and Women, Old Man and Women

Types of Discitis

Infectious Discitis

This type relates to other indications like fever, extreme chills, appetite loss & many more. Infectious discitis involves symptoms such as sweat, loss of appetite, fever, and chills resulting from the invasion of the microorganisms between the discs spaces located in the spinal column. This symptom makes its presence due to specific microorganism on the vertebra.

Septic Discitis

Septic discitis is a very rare type of discitis. This occurs due to direct settlement of bacteria in the disk space. This kind is very rare & further categorized according to hematogenous, post-operative & contagious types.

The order for septic discitis typically relies on the sources, for example, postoperative, hematogenous or infectious. Septic discitis is a condition wherein microbes legitimately enters the space present between the vertebral plates.

Osteomyelitis Discitis

The cause for this is mostly microorganisms. Osteomyelitis discitis is inflammation of the bones. They may either affect the bones of the spinal column or may affect the other bones present in the vertebral region. Osteomyelitis discitis may either be acute or chronic.

Lumbar Discitis

Lumbar discitis is a condition which happens because of issues in the lumbar district present in the spinal segment. This affects the lumbar region of the spinal cord, thus does not infect other discs in the body. Being a self-constraining malady, lumbar discitis doesn’t spread and contaminate different plates of the spinal section.

Causes of Discitis

The Discitis is considered to be caused by an infectious agent like Staphylococcus aureus or other microorganisms. Discitis can be also caused by bacteria (sometimes called “bugs”), virus, or fungus.

Listed below are a few common causes of discitis:

  • Viral infection
  • Intervertebral disc space.
  • Bacterial infection
  • Abnormal autoimmune response
  • Spondylopathies (Inflammatory disorder of vertebral column.)
  • Stiffness in your back (Inflammation due to back pain can also trigger the prevalence of discitis.)
  • Exaggerated curvature of thoracic vertebral column results in hunch back.
  • abdominal pain or discomfort;
  • a fever; and/or
  • chills
  • Deforming dorsopathy
  • Anterior exaggerated curvature of vertebral column results in additional pressure over a lumbar disc.

Risk Factors of Discitis

Autoimmune disorders are at a greater risk of developing this condition. Adults with a weak immune system or a history of surgeries and intravenous drugs may also develop this condition.

Medication misuse, especially intravenous medication use and liquor addiction are additionally hazard factors. .

Listed below are a few common risk factors of discitis:

  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Remote infection (present in ~25%)
  • Age – Discitis is progressively regular in kids under ten years of age
  • ascending infection, e.g. from urogenital tract instrumentation
  • spinal instrumentation or trauma
  • The utilization of intravenous medications, which can either be because of IV medication misuse or IV needle pollution
  • intravenous drug use
  • cancer
  • immunosuppression
  • long-term systemic administration of steroids
  • advanced age
  • Recovering from surgery
  • organ transplantation
  • diabetes mellitus
  • malnutrition
  • Weakened immune system

Discitis Sign and Symptoms

On the off chance that you have discitis, you’ll likely have noteworthy agony in part of your spine. Your lower and upper back may be affected. Other symptoms can include:

  • Severe pain in the lower back may be experienced.
  • Local tenderness
  • Growing pain in back
  • Spinal tenderness
  • Feeling tired.
  • Feel difficulty while walking and sometimes may even refuse to walk due to severe pain.
  • Pain in certain parts of the spine
  • Refusal to crawl, sit or walk
  • Chronic Headaches
  • Lumbar Spasms
  • Constant fatigue and debilitation
  • Intense abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Fevers, alternating with sudden chills (Mild fever depending upon the degree and kind of infection.
  • Difficulty performing regular mobility tasks
  • Paravertebral muscle spasm
  • Restricted range of movement
  • Inability to bear weight
  • Stiffness in your back
  • Cervical lesion
  • Difficulty while getting up from the floor.
  • Sweating, especially night sweats.
  • Severe pain in hip, leg or groin area (Limping, with hip or leg pain))
  • Loss of appetite
  • Incontinence may be a presenting feature
  • Difficulty while raising the leg in the upward direction when lying down on the back.
  • Changes in your posture
  • Difficulty performing regular tasks
  • Increased curvature of the back

What should you do in Discitis?

The doctors may advise you to stop the physical activities for a few weeks and give your back a complete rest.

  • The patient may also support the back during walking.
  • Timely surgical intervention
  • Timely surgical intervention
  • Frequent leaning back of the patients may also be noticed.
  • Early diagnosis
  • Prolonged antimicrobial therapy
  • A cast or a prop might be utilized for supporting the spine and to maintain a strategic distance from weight.

What should you not do in Discitis?

  • Stop the physical activities for a few weeks
  • You should not lift too much weight

How is Discitis Diagnosed?

Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential to preserve spinal stability and neurological function. First of all, the doctor will conduct physical examination to study the symptoms and determine the cause of symptoms.

He may also perform a range of other diagnostic tests. The anticipation for patients experiencing discitis is intensely impacted by how early the condition is analyzed and treated.

In rare cases, you may require medical procedure to determine issues coming from discitis and osteomyelitis. Your primary care physician may need to remake territories of your spine to improve its capacity and your portability.

An intensive history that evokes a fever and chill, characteristic of a body-wide infection is the initial phase in the analysis. So Early diagnosis is a major challenge. Increased mindfulness and the brief utilization of MRI are important to maintain a strategic distance from indicative postponement.

Blood tests

A full blood count is a very common blood test which your GP can run and it will help identify any signs of infection, including higher than normal levels of white blood cells. This test collects a sample of your blood which gives a red and white blood cells count which can help diagnose infection.

Blood tests are not especially explicit in the conclusion but rather in light of the fact that infection isn’t typically observed with different reasons for back agony, this can be a marker for discitis.

Imaging tests

These tests create pictures of your spine as well as the surrounding tissues. Some examples of these types of tests include x-rays and MRIs. An X-ray or MRI scan may also be taken as the images may show signs of an infection in your back. A MRI is the best and most sure technique for conclusion.

Bone Scans

A bone sweep or examination of an example of tissue from your spine may likewise be taken, yet these are probably going to be less basic tests. This test is used to take a more in-depth look at your vertebrae, which can help your physician assess the vitality of the bone and learn if you have a bone infection.

X-ray of lumbar spine

This is to ensure that the correct antibiotics can be prescribed. Blood societies may likewise be taken to distinguish the particular infection causing the discitis.

Tissue Analysis

In some cases, your physician may order a biopsy of your spinal tissue to collect a sample for analysis. This can help them develop their diagnosis.

Discitis Home Treatments

People suffering from this disorder require complete rest which stimulates quick recovery from the inflammatory process. Discitis is treatable and for the most part brings about an uncomplicated fix.

The measures of immobilization provide the vertebrae ample time & space to amalgamate with other physical features of the body. In any case, it takes a long course of anti-toxin treatment that is normally allowed intravenously consistently at a mixture focus.

If movement is required, doctors suggest you incorporate brace or plaster cast which helps while making movements. There are no perfect home remedy or home treatment for Discitis.

These are some of the non-surgical treatments

  • Pain Killers
  • Antidepressants
  • Activity Restrictions
  • A Back Brace, to stabilize the spine and restrict painful movement in the infected area
  • Muscle Relaxants
  • Antibiotics
  • Physiotherapy, with an emphasis on core exercise
    Medications, such as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
    Nerve Pain Medications

Prevention of Discitis

There is nothing a patient can do to prevent discitis that is a result of a viral or bacterial infection. The treatment for discitis usually depends upon the type of infection. The treatment may involve medication and surgery.

However, specialists performing surgeries on the back routinely use anti-toxins to limit the dangers of discitis and different infections. The torment is typically restricted to the locale of the infection and doesn’t transmit (shoot) down the leg or different districts of the body as do some other back disorders (like sciatica).

Standard or nonstop utilization of anti-microbials prompts hypersensitivities or loose bowels. X-rays and scans must be performed periodically. Discitis is usually treated nonoperative with antibiotics.

Surgery helps in cleaning out severe kinds of infections and is usually not necessary to treat discitis. Surgery may be necessary to fix alignment issues. Metallic inclusions or combination fittings might be useful in performing developments. However Surgery is performed in very severe cases.


Discitis happens in the youthful and afterward again in the older. Discitis is relatively uncommon. Mostly affects young children.Discitis regularly happens in the lumbar (low back) locale of the spine, trailed by the cervical (neck) spine, and afterward in the thoracic (mid-back) spine. It often accompanies another condition called osteomyelitis.

It can present as simply back torment at first, thusly discitis may not be analyzed when it ought to be. The seeding of the infection is commonly by a haematogenous spread. Aches and pains are an inevitable part of life, and back pain is suffered by more than a third of the World’s population every year.

Keep in mind that discitis is uncommon, and your primary care physician’s assessment might be sufficient to state that you don’t have it and won’t require any further testing. Discitis is an infection that can affect your bones and bone marrow. S

eptic discitis is an inflammatory process of the intervertebral disc which usually involves the discovertebral junction. Discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis are unprecedented conditions, so they can deliver extreme indications and influence your personal satisfaction.

It is generally very excruciating, and torment control is a basic segment of discitis treatment too. Discitis often presents with localized back pain, but additional neurological signs can develop, with radicular, meningeal or spinal cord involvement.